Ectopic Pregnancy

Haseen Mumraiz

1st Year MBBS, Islamabad Medical and Dental College

Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is known as the pregnancy in which embryo implants outside the uterine cavity. EP has different types, such as tubal, interstitial, ovarian, abdominal, heterotopic, cervical and scar pregnancy. There are 97% chances of tubal ectopic pregnancies which occur in different parts of fallopian tube, and other 3% occurs in abdominal cavity, ovary and cervix.1 Figure: Abnormal implantation sites of blastocyst.1 Ectopic pregnancy is the most severe and life-threatening emergency at the early stage of a pregnancy, there is a high risk of tubal rupture and catastrophic hemorrhage which leads to maternal death.²


There is a test for diagnosing ectopic pregnancy known as ultrasonography. The EP is suspected when beta-hCG level of a patient is higher than 6,500 mIU per ml and the gestational sac does not show in the uterus.³


If the EP is not diagnosed at the early stage it may lead to maternal death as this leads to a gynecological emergency with substantial bleeding into the abdomen. The treatment suggested for the cure of this kind of pregnancy is surgical. The need for radical surgery and rate of maternal death, both can reduce with the appropriate use of laparoscopy. If the diagnosed occur at the early stage of pregnancy, some medical treatments can be used. But with the time, there is a huge risk of complications.4

  1. Murray H, Baakdah H, Bardell T, Tulandi T. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Cmaj. 2005 Oct 11;173(8):905-12.
  2. Dvash S, Cuckle H, Smorgick N, Vaknin Z, Padoa A, Maymon R. Increase rate of ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2021 Apr 1;259:95-9.
  3. Lozeau AM, Potter B. Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy. American family physician. 2005 Nov 1;72(9):1707-14.
  4. Houser M, Kandalaft N, Khati NJ. Ectopic pregnancy: a resident’s guide to imaging findings and diagnostic pitfalls. Emergency Radiology. 2021 Oct 7:1-2.

Volume 4

An Official Publication of Student Spectrum at
Islamabad Medical & Dental College

Address of Correspondence

Haseen Mumraiz