Blood Cancer; a Fatal Disease

Haseen Mumraiz

1 Student, 1st Year MBBS, Islamabad Medical and Dental College

Cancer contains a mixture of biological and nonbiological factors. It is considered as the second major disease which is the cause of high mortality in the worldwide. There are more than 277 diseases which are related to cancer. Scientists discovered different stages of cancer. There are many types of cancer such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, breast cancer and blood cancer. In the present study, we mainly focus on blood cancer.1
A type of cancer which begins within the bone marrow called as blood cancer. It affects some parts of lymphatic system. It begins with the unusual division of cells in bone marrow and affects the functions of normal blood cells in human body, for instance, fighting off infections or preventing severe bleeding.2 Although the major causes of blood cancer are yet unknown, there are several factors which we can say that they are leading causes of this such as gene mutations which are involved in cancer formation in the body. Due to gene mutation, this disease run into families. Another factor which is also become the cause of blood cancer is a weak immune system. Some common forms of blood cancer are myeloma, leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and lymphoma.3 Leukemia occurs when immature white blood cells are forming in human body. As white blood cells are called the army of body and fights against the invading pathogens, so when they produce immaturely, the body’s immune system become weak and they lose the ability to fight against the infections like, sore throat, sores in the mouth, diarrhea or pneumonia. Leukemia patients can easily affect with anemia.4
Lymphoma is also a major type of blood cancer which occurs when lymphocyte grows at abnormal rate.5 Lymphocytes contribute in the immune system and help in forming the lymphatic glands. When they start behaving abnormally, lymph nodes affect with them and it turns out as lymphoma. This type of blood cancer can affects all the human body because lymph tissues can be find anywhere in the body. Myeloma, another type of blood cancer, it occurs when plasma cells of bone marrow are affected. It helps immune system to protect from outside attacks as through the plasma cells antibodies are made. When these plasma cells act abnormally, they weaken the bones and produce cancer over the solid bone. These abnormal cells don’t let the bone marrow to make healthy blood cells.6
The cure of the blood cancer depends on the early and timely diagnosis of the diseases. When it diagnoses on its later stage, it difficult to cure or might leads to death.6

  1. Ranjitha P, Duth S. Detection of Blood Cancer-Leukemia using K-means Algorithm. In2021 5th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS) 2021 May 6 (pp. 838-842). IEEE.
  2. Das P, Srivastav AK, Muthukannan MR. A Study on Molecular Targeted Approaches To Cancer Therapy And The Role of Chalcones In Chemoprevention. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine. 2021;8(3):3254-67.
  3. Friedman R. The molecular mechanisms behind activation of FLT3 in acute myeloid leukemia and resistance to therapy by selective inhibitors. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Reviews on Cancer. 2022 Jan 1;1877(1):188666
  4. Kumar A, Ali M, Kumar R, Kumar M, Sagar P, Pandey RK, Akhouri V, Kumar V, Anand G, Niraj PK, Rani R. Arsenic exposure in Indo Gangetic plains of Bihar causing increased cancer risk. Scientific Reports. 2021 Jan 27;11(1):1-6.
  5. Rupapara V, Rustam F, Aljedaani W, Shahzad HF, Lee E, Ashraf I. Blood cancer prediction using leukemia microarray gene data and hybrid logistic vector trees model. Scientific reports. 2022 Jan 19;12(1):1-5.
  6. Fardin MF, Akter M. Review on Blood Cancer and their Types.

Volume 4

An Official Publication of Student Spectrum at
Islamabad Medical & Dental College

Address of Correspondence

Haseen Mumraiz